Now a days, back pain is one of the most common problem seen in almost every individual’s life including adults, elderly people &even the young populations.
In our day today life, we are busy with our works and pay less attention to our health.
People who are engaged with travelling job, field works or computer works or sitting job or who have undergone any injury or trauma are suffering from back pain and even the elderly people due to age related changes occurring in the spine.
The lower back includes the lumbar spine with 5 vertebras with inter vertebral disc between them, the sacrum where 5 vertebras are fused together and the coccyx or the tail bone with 4 fused vertebras and also including the sacro –illiac joint on both sides of the back. Any malalignment or changes in the structures can cause low back pain.
The most common conditions for low back pain are-
1. Bad habitual posture.
2. Bad occupational posture.
3. Lumbar Scoliosis
4. Spondylolisthesis
5. Spondylolysis
6. Ankylosing spondylitis
7. Tuberculosis of Spine
8. Tumor in Spine
9. Spinal Canal Stenosis
10. Lorclosis
11. Loss of lorclotic curve
12. Osteoporosis
13. Intervertebral disc prolapsed or disc bulge or herniation.
14. Arthritis due to age.
15. Degenerative changes due to age.
16. Sacro iliac joint pathology.
17. Any Fracture on the spine.

Conservative Approaches to Low Back Pain

Physiotherapy plays an important role in reducing the pain and making the surrounding muscles strong and healthy and preventing the spine from further damage and thus making the person to do his activities of daily living easily.

It includes:-
1. To reduce the pain-
Modalities includes: –
* IFT (Inter Ferential Therapy)
*TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation)
*Ultra sound Therapy
*Hydro collator Packs.
2. Mobilization- to increase the mobility of the spine.
3. Exercises Programmer-
(a)Spinal Flexion Exercises-
*Strengthen the abdominal muscles.
*Stretches the tight back muscles reducing stress on the Lumbar Spine.
*Prevents the vertebrae or disc from further anterior displacement.

Contra indications:-
->Lateral Shift of the spine.
->Osteoporotic Spine
->Any Fracture.
(b)Spinal Extension Exercises:-
*Strengthen the extenses muscles as well as the hip muscles.
*Stretches the tight muscles of the thigh & the abdomen.
*Prevents further posterior and post erior lateral disc bulge or herniation.
*Helps in spinal Mobility.
Contra indications:-
->Spinal Canal Stenosis.
© Mobility Exercises:-
Pelvic rotation that improves the flexibility of the rotators.
(d) Stretching: – Stretching of the tight muscles enhances good posture and mobility.
(e) Core Muscle Strengthening exercises:-
*Cat and Camel
4. Lumbar Traction:-
* Provides relaxation of the tight muscles.
*Releases pressure on the nerve roots.
*Increases the interverte bral disc spaces.
*Helps in reduction of the disc protusion.

“Ergonomic Advice for Low Back Pain”.

1. Maintenance of proper correct posture.
2. Avoid prolong standing or sitting or Walking.
3. Avoid forward bending.
4. Avoid lifting heavy weight.
5. Maintainance of correct posture during lifting weights.
6. Use of lumbar belt during travelling.

Thus “A healthy Back, a happy life”.